Senator Adlai E. Stevenson III
Once a man holds public office he is absolutely no good for honest work.
Will Rogers

APRIL 16, 2016
ABRAHAM LINCOLN PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY AND MUSEUM

THE BLACK BOOK

 

THE BLACK BOOK RECALLS AMERICAN POLITICS, CULTURE AND HISTORY AS MY FAMILY KNEW IT OVER FIVE GENERATIONS. IT IS NAMED FOR A BINDER STARTED BY GREAT GRANDFATHER ADLAI I, VICE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, WHO STUFFED IT WITH APHORISMS, JOKES, BITS OF WIT AND WISDOM. THIS BINDER BECAME KNOWN AS THE BLACK BOOK AND EXPANDED OVER THE GENERATIONS AS A SOURCE OF MATERIALS FOR OUR SPEECHES. IT DID MORE FOR MY FATHER AND GREAT GRANDFATHER THAN FOR ME. MIKE ROYKO OF THE OLD CHICAGO SUN TIMES OBSERVED THAT MY SPEECHES MADE THE BLOOD RUN TEPID. I HAD ALL THE ORATORICAL FIRE OF AN ALGEBRA TEACHER, HE SAID. THE BLACK BOOK HELPED ONLY SO MUCH.

MY BLACK BOOK, RECENTLY PUBLISHED IN CHINA BY THE EMINENT CHINESE ACADEMY OF SOCIAL STUDIES PRESS, CONTRASTS VALUES WHICH MADE AMERICA GREAT AND VALUES WITH UNDERMINE IT TODAY. IT RECORDS LESSONS FROM A RICH AMERICAN PAST AND, QUOTING CONFUCIUS AND CHURCHILL, EXPLAINS THAT TO SEE THE FUTURE YOU MUST SEE THE PAST.

THE BLACK BOOK BEGINS WITH LINCOLN AND ENDS IN CHINA WITH AN EPILOGUE ON THE LIFE CYCLE OF NATIONS AND EMPIRES. CHINA, A CIVILIZATION, AS WELL AS A STATE, IS ON THE RISE. SOON IT WILL HAVE THE WORLD'S LARGEST ECONOMY.

LINCOLN EMPLOYED ANECDOTE, HUMOR AND STORY IN HIS SPEECHES. HE OBSERVED, "THEY SAY I TELL A GREAT MANY STORIES; I RECKON I DO, BUT I HAVE FOUND IN THE COURSE OF A LONG EXPERIENCE THAT COMMON PEOPLE, TAKE THEM AS THEY RUN, ARE MORE EASILY INFORMED THROUGH THE MEDIUM OF A BROAD ILLUSTRATION THAN IN ANY OTHER WAY, AND AS TO WHAT THE HYPER CRITICAL FEW MAY SAY, I DON'T CARE". LINCOLN MAY HAVE INSPIRED ADLAI I TO DO LIKEWISE. STORIES, HUMOR COULD MAKE THE POINT AND ENGAGE THE AUDIENCE. THE BLACK BOOK IS RICH IN HUMOR. IT ENLIVENED THE DISCOURSE THEN - AND IS SCARCE NOW.

GREAT, GREAT GRANDFATHER JESSE FELL PROPOSED THE LINCOLN DOUGLAS DEBATES. - SEVEN DEBATES OF FOUR HOURS EACH FOCUSED ON ONE SUBJECT - SLAVERY IN THE TERRITORIES. PEOPLE TRAVELED BY FOOT, HORSEBACK AND BY WAGON AND BY THE THOUSANDS TO BE A PART OF THEIR POLITICS. WHEN THE DEBATES BROUGHT LINCOLN TO THE NATION'S ATTENTION, FELL PERSUADED HIM TO RUN FOR PRESIDENT. LINCOLN GAVE FELL HIS "AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH" WHICH FELL USED TO PROMOTE LINCOLN. THIS LETTER TO FELL SKETCHED LINCOLN'S HUMBLE ORIGINS AND BEGAN, "THERE IS NOT MUCH OF IT, FOR THE REASON, I SUPPOSE, THAT THERE IS NOT MUCH OF ME." .IT IS RECORDED IN THE BLACK BOOK AND DEPICTS ANOTHER TIME AND MAN - FROM LINCOLN TO TRUMP.

FELL WAS THE EXEMPLARY AMERICAN CITIZEN FOR WHOM SERVICE TO COUNTRY AND COMMUNITY WAS A WELCOME DUTY. HE FOUNDED WHAT IS NOW ILLINOIS STATE UNIVERSITY AND PUBLISHED THE BLOOMINGTON DAILY PANTAGRAPH. HE MADE MONEY AND GAVE IT ALL BACK TO HIS COMMUNITY, ASKING NOTHING. AS SECRETARY OF THE INFANT REPUBLICAN PARTY HE WAS CHARGED BY ITS STATE CONVENTION WITH ORGANIZING ILLINOIS' DELEGATION TO THE 1860 REPUBLICAN NATIONAL CONVENTION FOR LINCOLN. WITHOUT FELL, THE CITIZEN, THERE MIGHT NEVER HAVE BEEN LINCOLN THE PRESIDENT.

A PARADOX DEVELOPS IN THE BLACK BOOK. THE GREAT PRESIDENTS IN MODERN HISTORY WERE NOMINATED BY PARTY CONVENTIONS WHICH ALSO DEBATED TRANSCENDENT ISSUES. PARTY ORGANIZATION HAD A PURPOSE WHICH TRANSCENDED POWER. PARTY LEADERS WITH KNOWLEDGE OF THE ISSUES, THE CANDIDATES AND DEMANDS OF PUBLIC OFFICE NOMINATED CANDIDATES FOR PRESIDENT, SENATOR AND GOVERNOR. IN EARLIER DAYS THE LABOURING CLASSES, MANY OF THEM IMMIGRANTS, PILED INTO AMERICA'S SLUMS WHERE THEIR REFUGE WAS THE SETTLEMENT HOUSE, THE CHURCH OR PERHAPS THE DEMOCRATIC POLITICAL ORGANIZATION. IN A CHICAGO IRISH WARD, A LITTLE BOY'S PRAYER BEGAN, "OUR FATHER WHO ART IN HEAVEN, O'HALLORAN BE THY NAME." O'HALLORAN WAS THE DEMOCRATIC WARD COMMITTEEMAN. THE DEMOCRATIC ORGANIZATION WAS A ROUTE TO THE MIDDLE CLASS FOR SOME.

TODAY PARTY ORGANIZATIONS HAVE LITTLE PURPOSE EXCEPT TO RAISE MONEY AND HOST CONVENTIONS WHICH ARE MEDIA EVENTS. TODAY'S MAINSTREAM MEDIA TRIVIALIZES THE DIALOGUE. ACCORDING TO FACT CHECKING ORGANIZATIONS, ABOUT 70% OF DONALD TRUMP'S STATEMENTS ARE FALSE GOVERNOR O'MALLEY WAS RANKED FIRST FOR TRUTH. SO TRUMP TRIUMPHS. HE GETS THE MEDIA ATTENTION.

MONEY COULD ALWAYS BUY INFLUENCE. IN THE BLACK BOOK MONEY IS A SUBJECT OF DISCOMFORT AND SENSITIVITY. NOW IT IS A MEASURE OF POLITICAL VIABILITY. POLLS OF PUBLIC OPINION UNINFORMED BY DISCOURSE AND THE NEW MASS MEDIA FOLLOWED.

WITH ROOTS IN THE GILDED AGE AND ILLINOIS, NO STEVENSON IS UNFAMILIAR WITH THE UNDERSIDE OF AMERICAN POLITICS. BUT IN THE BLACK BOOK AMERICA EXPERIENCED GREAT BURSTS OF POLITICAL ENERGY AND IDEALISM. THE GILDED AGE WAS FOLLOWED BY POPULISTS, PROGRESSIVES AND MUCKRAKERS, BY TEDDY ROOSEVELT AND WOODROW WILSON. THE 20'S WAS FOLLOWED BY DEPRESSION AND THE NEW DEAL.

IN 1948, I WAS A 17 YEAR OLD SERGEANT AT ARMS AT THE DEMOCRATIC CONVENTION IN PHILADELPHIA STATIONED BENEATH THE ROSTRUM (THAT WAS SECURITY IN THOSE DAYS) WHEN AN UNKNOWN MAYOR OF MINNEAPOLIS AND CANDIDATE FOR THE SENATE WAS RECOGNIZED. HUBERT HUMPHREY, LATER MY JUNIOR SENATE SEAT MATE, CHALLENGED THOSE POLITICIANS ASSEMBLED IN THAT HOT, SWEATY, SMOKE FILLED ROOM TO DO THEIR DUTY - ADOPT A STRONG CIVIL RIGHTS PLANK. AND THEY DID, DRIVING MUCH OF THE SOUTH OUT OF THE PARTY. IT WAS A HOPELESS YEAR FOR THE DEMOCRATS. THEY HAD HELD THE PRESIDENCY SINCE 1933.

BACK IN ILLINOIS, THE PARTY LEADERS GATHERED BEHIND CLOSED DOORS TO SLATE A NEW DEAL BUREAUCRAT, ARCHITECT OF THE UN, ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF THE NAVY AND DIPLOMAT IN THE TRUMAN AND ROOSEVELT ADMINISTRATIONS FOR GOVERNOR- MY FATHER. FOR THE SENATE THEY SLATED AN EMINENT PROFESSOR OF ECONOMICS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO AND MARINE CORPS VETERAN OF THE WAR IN THE PACIFIC, PAUL H. DOUGLAS.

I WAS THE DRIVER. DAY IN AND OUT WE CAMPAIGNED AT FACTORY GATES AND COUNTY SQUARES, WARD MEETINGS AT NIGHT, PRESSING THE FLESH, CONDEMNING THE CORRUPT GREEN ADMINISTRATION IN SPRINGFIELD, THE DO NOTHING CONGRESS IN WASHINGTON, EXHORTING THE FAITHFUL TO GET EVERYONE REGISTERED AND OUT TO VOTE THE STRAIGHT DEMOCRATIC TICKET. THE GUV WON BY THE LARGEST MARGIN TO THAT TIME, HELPING CARRY HARRY TRUMAN TO A NARROW VICTORY IN THE COUNTRY. HIS CAMPAIGN COST $157,000. I REMEMBER NO FUND RAISERS. WITHOUT THE STRAIGHT DEMOCRATIC TICKET, THOMAS DEWEY WOULD PROBABLY HAVE BEEN ELECTED PRESIDENT.

THE GUV, AS ADLAI II, WAS KNOWN TO FRIENDS, RECRUITED PROFESSIONALS TO STATE GOVERNMENT. THEY DID NOT PAY TO PLAY. THEY SACRIFICED TO SERVE. THE GUV SHUT DOWN GAMBLING ACROSS THE STATE AND REFORMED STATE GOVERNMENT. THE LEGISLATURE WENT ALONG. OF COURSE, IT HELPED THE GUV TO HAVE 30,000 REPUBLICAN EMPLOYEES TO REPLACE WITH GOOD DEMOCRATS, ONE OF WHOM OBSERVED THAT HE HAD BEEN A LIFE LONG DEMOCRAT EVER SINCE HE GOT HIS STATE JOB. THE GUV OBSERVED THAT CLEANLINESS WAS NEXT TO GODLINESS, EXCEPT IN THE LEGISLATURE WHERE IT WAS NEXT TO IMPOSSIBLE. THANKED FOR HIS SUPPORT FOR A TAX INCREASE FOR HIGHWAYS, REPRESENTATAIVE PAUL POWELL OF SHOE BOX FAME, REPLIED TO THE GUV: I'M SURE GLAD TO HAVE YOUR SUPPORT BECAUSE IT COST ME $50,000. PAUL POWELL WAS THE NEMESIS OF TWO GENERATIONS. ASKED FOR A COMMENT AFTER HIS DEATH, I RESPONDED, "HIS SHOE BOXES WILL BE HARD TO FILL."

ADLAI I, AS FIRST ASSISTANT POSTMASTER GENERAL IN GROVER CLEVELAND'S FIRST ADMINISTRATION REPLACED 40,000 REPUBLICANS WITH GOOD DEMOCRATS FOR WHICH PUBLIC SERVICE HE WAS REWARDED BY HIS GRATEFUL PARTY WITH ITS NOMINATION FOR VICE PRESIDENT WITH GROVER CLEVELAND - A REFORMER.
IN 1952 THE GUV WAS DRAFTED FOR PRESIDENT BY THE DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL CONVENTION IN CHICAGO AFTER A BRILLIANT WELCOMING ADDRESS. HE ENTERED NO PRIMARIES. THEY WERE FORMALITIES WELL INTO MY TIME. HE STARTED THE CAMPAIGN AT THE CONVENTION WITH NO STAFF, PROGRAM OR MONEY - AND WENT ON TO ELECTRIFY THE WORLD.

IN THE BLACK BOOK THE PURPOSE OF DEMOCRACY IS NOT TO WIN POWER, IT IS TO INFORM THE PEOPLE SO THEY CAN MAKE SOUND DECISIONS. TRUST THE PEOPLE WITH THE TRUTH, ALL THE TRUTH, THE GUV SAID. WHAT WINS IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN WHO WINS. THE FAIRNESS DOCTRINE PREVAILED. THE PUBLIC'S AIR WAVES WERE USED TO INFORM, NOT TO EXPLOIT, THE PUBLIC. HE USED 18 HALF HOUR BLOCKS OF TIME ON NATIONAL TELEVISION FOR ELOQUENT, SUBSTANTIVE SPEECHES TO CHEERING PARTISANS. AS THE PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE IN THE CAMPAIGNS OF 1952 AND 1956 AND TITULAR LEADER OF THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY DURING THE EISENHOWER INTERREGNUM HE LAID THE FOUNDATIONS FOR THE NEW FRONTIER AND GREAT SOCIETY AND BEGAN THE STRATEGIC ARMS CONTROL PROCESS. THE OPPOSITION DID MORE THAN OPPOSE. THE LATE ARTHUR SCHLESINGER DUBBED JFK "EXECUTOR OF THE STEVENSON REVOLUTION."

DEMOCRACY IS FRAGILE, ITS ROAD TO AUTOCRACY AND WAR WELL TRAVELED. CONDITIONED BY CENTURIES OF DYNASTIC AND ECCLESIASTICAL WARS, THE FOUNDERS PUT UP A WALL BETWEEN CHURCH AND STATE. REASON WOULD REIGN IN MAN'S TEMPORAL DOMAIN., GOD IN HIS SPIRITUAL DOMAIN. THEY CREATED A REPRESENTATIVE FORM OF DEMOCRACY OVER TIME MADE MORE DIRECT. HAMILTON WARNED OF WAR FEVERS IN THE HUMAN BREAST. THEY CREATED A SYSTEM OF CHECKS AND BALANCES. WARS WOULD BE DECLARED BY CONGRESS, BUT IT TOOK LITTLE MORE THAN A FICTITIOUS ATTACK IN THE BAY OF TONKIN, A FICTITIOUS ATTACK IN HAVANA HARBOR OR FICTITIOUS WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION IN IRAQ TO EXCITE THE FEVERS AND TAKE THE COUNTRY TO WAR. RARE IS THE CONGRESSMAN ABRAHAM LINCOLN WHO DEMANDS EVIDENCE OF THE CASSUS BELLI.. AS THE BLACK BOOK EXPLAINS, IT IS EASIER TO MAKE WAR THAN TO MAKE PEACE. I WARNED OF TERRORISM, TRIED TO PREVENT IT AND PAID THE PRICE. THE GUV WAS A PEACEMAKER.
I REMEMBER VERY LITTLE PARTISANSHIP IN THE ILLINOIS HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES I ENTERED IN 1963 AND NO PARTISANSHIP IN THE SENATE I ENTERED IN 1970. THE CENTER WAS BROAD. REASON STILL REIGNED AND WISE MEN, TOO. IN THE SENATE WE CROSSED THE AISLE TO SUPPORT ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION LEGISLATION, CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY LEGISLATION AND THE OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT. REPUBLICAN PRESIDENT NIXON IMPOSED WAGE AND PRICE CONTROLS. SENATORS TRIED TO SUPPORT THEIR PRESIDENT REGARDLESS OF PARTY.

THE 1970'S WAS A TRANSITIONAL DECADE. MONEY, AN EPISODIC ELECTRONIC MEDIA, WATERGATE AND VIETNAM CONVERGED. THE DEMOCRATIC DIALOGUE DRIED UP. REFORMS FOLLOWED - AND THE PARADOX. SOME REFORMS WERE SOUND LIKE CAMPAIGN FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE AND SPENDING LIMITS. I WAS MADE CHAIRMAN OF THE SENATE'S FIRST ETHICS COMMITTEE WITH A COMPREHENSIVE CODE OF ETHICS TO ENFORCE. IN THOSE DAYS THE MERE PENDENCY OF AN ETHICS COMMITTEE INVESTIGATION TERMINATED YOUR CAREER.

BUT SOME REFORMS UNRAVELED, AND SOME HAD UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES. WE REFORMERS OPENED THE DOORS TO LET IN THE SUNSHINE AND LET IN THE LOBBYISTS AND MONEY. IT NEVER STOPPED FLOWING. LEGISLATORS STOPPED LEGISLATING. NOW THEY DELEGATE RESPONSIBILITY TO STAFF WHICH JOINS WITH THE LEADERSHIP TO DRAFT OMNIBUS BILLS IN THE HOUSE WHICH MEMBERS HAVE NO CHANCE TO READ OR AMEND. THEY SPEND MUCH OF THEIR TIME DIALING FOR DOLLARS. THEY BUY COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS FROM THE LEADERSHIP.

AS WE REFORMED POLITICS, USUALLY IN THE NAME OF DEMOCRACY, WE MADE IT LESS DEMOCRATIC AND ACCOUNTABLE IN RESPECTS. THE FOUNDERS CLOSED THE DOORS AT THE 1787 CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION - AS WE HAD WHEN IT CAME TO WRITING LEGISLATION TO REPRESENT THE PUBLIC INTEREST IN THE SENATE. - BEFORE WE REFORMERS OPENED THEM. IT IS OFTEN EASIER TO REPRESENT THE PUBLIC INTEREST IN SECRET . THE FOUNDERS CLOSED THE DOORS AND WENT ONE STEP FARTHER. THE DELEGATES WERE PLEDGED TO SECRECY.

IN THE 80'S IDEOLOGUES BEGAN ARRIVING IN WASHINGTON EVEN AS IDEOLOGUES WERE LEAVING BEIJING. A FAMILIAR SOCIAL DARWINIAN TRICKLE DOWN ECONOMICS RETURNED AND THE MAGIC OF THE MARKET PLACE. FUNDING FOR CIVIL RESEARCH, EDUCATION AND JOB TRAINING WERE CUT
- RESOURCES SHIFTED TO THE MILITARY. THE BUDGET BEGAN ITS DECENT INTO DEFICIT. THE TEA PARTY WOULD FOLLOW. RECENT HISTORY IS ALL TOO FAMILIAR. PRESIDENT OBAMA INHERITED A BUDGET PLUNGING INTO DEFICIT AT THE FASTEST RATE IN HISTORY AND TWO WARS.
NOW THE CONGRESS IS DYSFUNCTIONAL. THE SUPREME COURT IS THREATENED BY DEAD LOCK. THE MONEY FLOWS INTO LOBBYING, CAMPAIGN CONTRIBUTIONS, SUPER PACS AND CONSULTANTS. BY NO COINCIDENCE INCOME INEQUALITY IS THE GREATEST SINCE 1928 AND MOUNTING. AN ESTIMATED 256 FAMILIES OWN AS MUCH AS THE ENTIRE BOTTOM HALF OF AMERICANS.

THE COMPLEXITIES OF GOVERNING MOUNT IN A DYNAMIC INTERDEPENDENT, NUCLEAR WORLD AS OUR COMPETENCIES DECLINE. ALL LEVELS OF GOVERNMENT ARE AFFECTED. SPRINGFIELD IS PARALYZED. THE PUBLIC IS RIGHTLY CONCERNED. SENATOR SANDERS HAS TAPPED INTO THE DISCONTENT. BUT SOME AMERICANS ARE WRONGLY DISPOSED TO SUPPORT THOSE LEAST QUALIFIED BY TEMPERAMENT AND EXPERIENCE., LITTLE HEEDING THE LESSONS OF HISTORY.

OUR POLITICS LOST ITS BALANCE, BUT IF THE BLACK BOOK IS ANY GUIDE, IT CAN BE RESTORED, AMERICAN POLITICS REFORMED. AMERICANS RESPOND TO CHALLENGE. BUT THEY NEED AN AGENDA FOR RENEWAL AND REFORM -A RESPONSE.

THE ADLAI STEVENSON CENTER ON DEMOCRACY CONDUCTED A PROGRAM ON POLITICAL REFORM RECENTLY WHICH UNDERSCORED THE NEED TO RESTORE THE 'REGULAR ORDER' TO CONGRESS AND REFORM CAMPAIGN FINANCE. PARTIAL PUBLIC FINANCING IS BUT ONE MEANS. OTHER COUNTRIES DO A BETTER JOB OF INFORMING THEIR PUBLICS - INDEED SOME TRY WITH ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROGRAMMING TO INFORM THE AMERICAN PUBLIC. THE FAIRNESS DOCTRINE COULD BE RE ESTABLISHED. THE FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS ACT COULD BE ENFORCED. MOST DEVELOPED DEMOCRACIES GENEROUSLY SUPPORT PUBLIC MEDIA. PUBLIC BROADCASTING NEEDS MORE FUNDING. THE PUBLIC'S AIR WAVES SHOULD BE USED FOR ITS BENEFIT NOT ITS EXPLOITATION.

OUR BALLOTS ARE SO LONG THEY LEAVE THE VOTER BEWILDERED BY UNFAMILIAR CANDIDATES FOR UNFAMILIAR OFFICES. THE US IS THE ONLY COUNTRY WHICH ELECTS JUDGES, EXCEPT BOLIVIA. DO WE NEED TO ELECT AN OFFICIAL TO DISTRIBUTE LICENSE PLATES? ILLINOIS HAS MORE UNITS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT THAN ANY OTHER STATE.

AS STATE TREASURER, I TESTIFIED BEFORE THE ILLINOIS CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION IN FAVOR OF ABOLISHING MY OFFICE AND COMBINING IT WITH THE COMPTROLLER. THE TREASURER'S OFFICE WAS AN OLD FASHIONED PATRONAGE OFFICE. I COULD HIRE AND FIRE AT WILL - AND QUADRUPLE THE EARNINGS ON THE INVESTMENT OF STATE FUNDS WHILE CUTTING THE BUDGET EVERY YEAR. BUT DO WE NEED ALL THESE ELECTED STATE OFFICIALS? AND MORE LOCAL UNITS OF GOVERNMENT THAN ANY OTHER STATE?

MORE FUNDAMENTALLY, WE NEED TO REFORM THE SYSTEM FOR THE SELECTION OF PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATES. PARTY PRIMARIES AND CAUCUSES COULD BE REQUIRED TO BE HELD ON ONE OF THREE DATES - IN JUNE, JULY, AND AUGUST. CAMPAIGNS WOULD BE SHORTENED, COSTS REDUCED AND CANDIDATES FORCED TO ADDRESS A NATIONAL CONSTITUENCY. SENIOR PUBLIC AND PARTY OFFICIALS WOULD BE EX OFFICIO DELEGATES, RESTORING RESPONSIBILITY TO THOSE QUALIFIED TO EXERCISE IT. ONLY REGISTERED DEMOCRATS AND REPUBLICANS COULD VOTE IN THEIR RESPECTIVE PRIMARIES AND CHOSE THEIR CANDIDATES.

WE COULD RESPOND AGAIN, AS IN THE PAST, AND EMERGE STRONGER IN A WORLD THAT NEEDS AMERICAN LEADERSHIP. OUR POLITICS IS CHALLENGED, BUT CHALLENGE IS OPPORTUNITY. IN THE BLACK BOOK AMERICANS RESPOND. THEY NEVER LOSE FAITH NOR CONFIDENCE IN THE FUTURE. BUT THEY NEED AN AGENDA FOR REFORM. AND THAT IS WHY I HAVE WRITTEN THE BLACK BOOK AND WE HAVE ORGANIZED THE STEVENSON CENTER ON DEMOCRACY.